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ערב עיון לזכרו של ד"ר צבי אילן - מכון אבשלום 18 2 15 - חורבת חוקוק, שועה קיסילביץ-0

ערב_עיון_לזכרו_של_ד"ר_צבי_אילן_18_2_15_-_בית_הכנסת_בואדי_חמאם_-_ד"ר_עוזי_ליבנר

ערב עיון לזכרו של ד"ר צבי אילן 18 2 15 - בית הכנסת בואדי חמאם - ד"ר עוזי ליבנר

הכתובת: "... בכל עמלכן יהא מצותכן..." צילום: ג'ים הוברמן- הויקיפדיה העברית

תבליט שמשון הגיבור בבית הכנסת בחוקוק. על רצפת בית הכנסת שנחשף בחפירות של אונ' צפון קרוליינה ליד קיבוץ חוקוק, נתגלתה רצפת פסיפס צבעונית מרהיבה ובה תיאור מקראי של שמשון הגיבור וכתובת בעברית. בית כנסת מפואר מתקופת התלמוד (התקופות הרומית-המאוחרת והביזנטית, מאות 6-4 לספירה) נחשף בחפירות המתנהלות בחורבת חוקוק - יישוב יהודי קדום בגליל התחתון.

על קיומו של בית כנסת עתיק בחרבת חוקוק, ידוע מעדותו של רבי אשתורי הפרחי בספרו "כפתור ופרח" מהמאה ה-14, ומסקרים ארכיאולוגיים שנעשו בעבר בחורבה. בסקרים נתגלו פריטים ארכיטקטוניים מעוטרים, האופייניים לבתי הכנסת המפוארים שנבנו בגליל בתקופת התלמוד, ואולם – רק במהלך החפירה הזו, של אוניברסיטת צפון קרוליינה, נחשף חלק ממבנה בית הכנסת, הכולל קיר מפואר בנוי אבני גזית גדולות ורצפת פסיפס.

לדברי ד"ר דוד עמית מרשות העתיקות, השותף לפרופ' ג'ודי מגנס בניהול החפירה, "גולת הכותרת של התגליות בעונה הנוכחית היא רצפת פסיפס צבעונית באיכות גבוהה מאוד. הפסיפס כולל תיאור מקראי של שמשון הגיבור ושני זוגות שועלים שלפיד בוער נקשר בין זנבותיהם, כמתואר בעלילות שמשון בספר שופטים (פרק טו). כמו כן, נחשפה בפסיפס כתובת בעברית, בתוך מדליון המעוטר משני צדדיו במדליונים קטנים ובהם תיאורים מרהיבים ביופיים של ראשי נשים. בכתובת, שחלק ניכר משש שורותיה נמצא פגוע, ניתן לשחזר ברכה לאלה המקדישים את עמלם למצוות ומעשים טובים: "...בכל מצותכן יהא עמלכן...שלום".

המקור: רשות העתיקות

דיווח מעודכן

Photo: James Haberman

רחל אברהם כתבה בבלוג שלה Ancient Mosaic Depicting Samson Uncovered In A Galilee Synagogue

Excavations in a late Roman era synagogue at Huqoq in Israel’s eastern lower Galilee have uncovered a new mosaic depicting the biblical hero and judge, Samson. Jodi Magness of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, who has been conducting archaeological excavations at Huqoq since 2011, notes that while scenes from the Bible are not uncommon in ancient synagogues, mosaics featuring Samson are. Last summer (2012), excavations in the Huqoq synagogue brought to light a scene depicting Samson and the foxes (Judges 15:4). This summer, another section of the mosaic floor was discovered which shows Samson carrying the gate of Gaza (Judges 16:1-3).

Wadi Hamam is the only other ancient synagogue in Israel which has a mosaic with a scene of Samson, while outside of Israel only one ancient building in Turkey which may be a synagogue has a Samson mosaic. However, the Samson mosaics are not the only unusual aspect about the excavations at Huqoq. Magness states, “In most ancient synagogues in Israel with a decorated floor featuring figured designs such as people and animals, the figured decoration is in the center of the synagogue and the aisles have geometric patterns.” However, at Huqoq, there are mosaics with figured scenes in the aisles.”


Magness is puzzled by why mosaics depicting Samson are found at Huqoq, as it was not in the tribal area of Dan. Furthermore, many rabbis of the Talmudic period were not fond of Samson because of his attraction to non-Jewish women. While Magness stated that some positive depictions of Samson survive in rabbinic literature, these traditions are preserved mainly in the Babylonian Talmud, not in the Jerusalem Talmud. Thus, the glorification of Samson in a synagogue mosaic in Galilee goes against the generally negative view of Samson held by many rabbis at that time.

According to Magness, the surviving rabbinic traditions that depict Samson positively “suggest that some Jews considered Samson as a prototype or forerunner of the messiah. He had the potential to be the messiah but wasn’t. The popularity of Samson is connected with those traditions, with traditions that viewed Samson as a deliver and redeemer of Israel. In the area of Mount Arbel and Tiberias, these traditions were popular. This may be why the Samson scenes appear here.”

Interestingly, the mosaics of Samson depict him as a giant figure, even though Samson was not described as such in the Tanakh. However, Magness notes that some rabbinic literature describes Samson as a giant. She emphasized, “By the time of the Mishna and Talmud, there were all sorts of traditions about different figures in the Bible.” Depicting Samson as a giant accords with traditions that considered Samson as a redeemer of the Jewish people!

Adjacent to Samson carrying the gates of Gaza on his shoulders are riders with horses, who apparently represent Philistines. According to Magness, “In the Bible, they have chariots; they are not riding horses. In later Aramaic translations (Targumim), there are descriptions of Philistines riding horses. It is a reflection again of something that doesn’t occur in the biblical account, but in later traditions.”


DEMISE OF THE HUQOQ JEWISH COMMUNITY

Magness is unsure how the Huqoq synagogue met its demise. In front of the synagogue’s bema, there was a pile of stones mixed with ash that was found elsewhere in the synagogue, apparently from the later robbing-out of the bema. Above the synagogue, a medieval structure was built. There are no signs that the synagogue suffered a violent or sudden destruction. Although the synagogue was built in the 5th century, Huqoq is mentioned in the Tanakh in connection with the settlement of the tribes of Asher and Naphtali, and it was a Jewish village in the late Second Temple period and in the time of the Mishna and Talmud. Ishtori Haparchi (1280-1355) mentions a synagogue in Huqoq in his time, perhaps referring to the medieval building above the late Roman synagogue. By the Ottoman period, Huqoq was a Muslim village

דיווח נוסף

מבוא הכתבה:
A dazzling array of mosaics depicting biblical and historical scenes has been unearthed at a Late Roman-era synagogue in the Galilee’s ancient Huqoq village since 2012. With intricate attention to detail, each frame — until now kept under wraps — is worth thousands of words. In conjunction with the publication in BASOR of a 70-page interim report of the excavations from 2014–2017, lead archaeologist Dr. Jodi Magness of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is permitting the rare release of never-before-seen full images of the startling scenes uncovered there. The scenes vary from well-known religious stories such as Jonah and the Whale, Noah’s Ark, and Pharaoh’s soldiers being swept away by the Red Sea and swallowed up by dozens of sh, to the pagan zodiac at the oor’s center, as well as a portrayal of what may be the rst purely historical non-biblical scene in a synagogue — complete with armored elephants. In a phone conversation with The Times of Israel this week from the American Schools of Oriental Research annual conference in Denver, Magness said she is personally partial to the Jonah panel for its innate humor. In it, the prophet dangles out of the mouth of a Russian doll-like combination of three consequently swallowed sh as mythological harpies look on. But, she admits, picking one mosaic is a bit like choosing a favorite child and most people focus on the elephant mosaic, which is “so spectacular.” Complete with a standing army and decked-out military elephants, the elephant mosaic depicts an interesting tableau of two groups — one in armor and the other in white robes — which may be Alexander the Great, or perhaps a representation of the military alliance between the Seleucids and the Hasmonaean high priest, John Hyrcanus. Throughout the ooring, there are realistic-looking animals, including horses, donkeys, bears, camels, leopards, lions, snakes, sheep, foxes, and ostriches, as well as dozens of sh and other sea creatures including a dolphin and a wavy-tentacled octopus. And there are also mythological beings such as cupids and harpies, which are used to represent wind in the Jonah panel. Sprinkled among the stories, there is plenty of transportation as well, including a four-wheeled chariot, several sea vessels, and the ark Noah built. In one panel, the Tower of Babel is being constructed using a wide-variety of mechanisms and pulleys. Illustrating the strife that came hand-in-hand with its construction, ghts break out in the background among people of differing skin colors, garbed in diverse clothing and with a variety of hairstyles.

לסיום
Through 2014, the team also excavated portions of the outlying Jewish village, which gave additional insight into the agricultural lifestyle of the people who lived and breathed there, as well as the structures they resided in. “Archaeology involves a lot of interpretation,” Magness said, adding, “all science is interpretative.” Magness said her

ndings do not prove that all Galilean-type synagogues date later than the 2nd-3rd century period currently assigned to them, but her study does suggest that the structures cannot be dated based on building style alone. “My goals were to clarify the dating of Galilean synagogues and respond to a very widespread view that Jewish settlement declined under Byzantine Christian rule. I have to my satisfaction answered those questions to this point,” said Magness.



"פסיפס הפילים" - גורסת חופרת האתר

A Huqoq mosaic dated to the 5thC CE which may depict Alexander the Great interacting with the high priest of Jerusalem (Image by Mark Thiessen for National Geographic).

מהכתבה: The story of Alexander and the high priest was retold by the first century CE Jewish historian Josephus (Jewish Antiquities 11.317-345). Many have argued that the meeting never actually happened. True or untrue, the lore of Alexander’s interaction with the high priest was widely mythologized and retold well into Late Antiquity. From his death in 323 BCE, the biography and escapades of Alexander the Great became the inspiration for much literature, art, and even hairstyling. What interests me today is the late antique blending of the myths surrounding the deeds of Alexander the Great with the Book of Ezekiel, which transmits the prophecies of Ezekiel ben-Buzi, a priest living in exile within Babylon from 593-571 BCE.

סיפורם של אלכסנדר והכוהן הגדול סופר מחדש על ידי המאה הראשונה לספירה ההיסטוריון היהודי יוספוס (עתיקות יהודיות 11.317-345). רבים טענו כי הפגישה מעולם לא התרחשה. נכון או לא נכון, שורת האינטראקציה של אלכסנדר עם הכהן הגדול זכתה למיתולוגיה נרחבת ונאמרה מחדש גם בעת העתיקה המאוחרת. מאז מותו בשנת 323 לפנה"ס, הביוגרפיה והאסלפות של אלכסנדר הגדול הפכו להשראה לספרות רבה, אמנות ואף עיצוב שיער. מה שמעניין אותי כיום הוא מיזוג עתיק מאוחר של המיתוסים סביב מעשיו של אלכסנדר הגדול עם ספר יחזקאל, שמעביר את נבואותיו של יחזקאל בן בוזי, נביא שחי בגלות בתוך בבל בין השנים 593-571 לפני הספירה.

להלן קישור להרצאה

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חידת פסיפס הפילים והזכרון החשמונאי בגליל



מנורת המקדש ומשמעותה, מרד המכבים והחנוכיה בפסיפס

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Huqoq: Context and Meaning Warlike Scenes and Figurative Arcade in the Ancient Synagogue at]

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