שיט באגם עם אירנה
'Le grotte di Catullo (Sirmione) & villa romana (Desenzano)
Comune di Sirmione היא עיר על שפת אגם לה גרדה. העיר שייכת לפרובינציה של ברשיה הנמצאת בצפון מחוז לומברדיה. מספר תושביה לסוף 2004 היה 7280. היא שוכנת בגובה 68 מטר מעל פני הים. מקורה הוא בישוב עתיק ששכן על חצי אי Sirmio, אשר מחלק את החלק התחתון של האגם.
תולדות המקום[עריכה | עריכת קוד מקור]
The first traces of human presence in the area of Sirmione dates from the 6th-5th millennia BCE. Settlements on palafitte existed in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE.
Starting from the 1st century BCE, the area of the Garda, including what is now Sirmione, became a favourite resort for rich families coming from Verona, then the main Roman city in north-eastern Italy. The poet Catullus praised the beauties of the city and spoke of a villa he had in the area.
In the late Roman era (4th-5th centuries CE) the city became a fortified strongpoint defending the southern shore of the lake. A settlement existed also after the Lombard conquest of northern Italy: in the late years of the Lombard kingdom, the city was capital of a judiciary district directly subordinated to the king. Ansa, wife of King Desiderius, founded a monastery and a church in the city.
Around the year 1000 Sirmione was probably a free comune, but fell in the hands of the Scaliger in the early 13th century. Mastino I della Scala was probably the founder of the castle. In the same period Sirmione was refuge for Patarines hereticals. The military role of the city continued until the 16th century, but a garrison remained in the castle until the 19th century.
אתרים עיקריים[עריכה | עריכת קוד מקור]
[[Image:SirmioneFromScaligerCastle.jpg|thumb|ימין|[[View of Sirmione from the castle.
The main historical landmark of Sirmione is the so-called Grotto of Catullus (Grotte di Catullo), the most striking example of a Roman private edifice discovered in northern Italy. The edifice had a rectangular plan and measured 167 x 105 m. The town is famous for its thermal springs.
Other sights include:
- The Scaliger Castle (13th century), including a rare example of medieval port fortification, which was used by the Scaliger fleet.
- The church of San Pietro in Mavino, built in Lombard times but renovated in the 14th century. It has frescoes from the 12th-16th centuries, while the Romanesque bell tower is from 1070.
- Santa Maria Maggiore (1400) with a single nave decorated with 15th century frescoes and a contemporary wooden statue of the Madonna Enthroned.
- Villa of Catullus at the end of the promontory.